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avatarson
Английский язык
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to make up the word cambination
1 MONEY AND ITS FUNCTIONS
The main feature of money is its acceptance as the means of payment or medium of exchange. Nevertheless, money has other functions. It is a standard of value, a unit of account, a store of value and a standard of deferred payment.
The Medium of Exchange
Money, the medium of exchange, is used in one-half of almost all exchange. Workers work for money. People buy and sell goods in exchange for money. We accept money not to consume it directly but because it can subsequently be used to buy things we wish to consume. Money is the medium through which people exchange goods and services.
In barter economy there is no medium of exchange Goods are traded directly or swapped for other goods. In a barter economy, the seller and the buyer each must want something the other has to offer. Each person is simultaneously a seller and a buyer. There is a double coincidence of wants.
Trading is very expensive in a barter economy. People must spend a lot of time and effort finding others with whom they can make mutually satisfactory swaps. Since time and effort are scarce resources, a barter economy is wastefill.
Money is generally accepted in payment for goods, services, and debts and makes the trading process simpler and more efficient.
Other Functions of Money
Money can also serve as a standard of value. Society considers it convenient to use a monetary unit to determine relative costs of different goods and services. In this function money appears as the unit of account, is the unit in which prices are quoted and accounts are kept.
To be accepted in exchange, money has to be a store of value. Money is a store of value because it can be used to make purchases in the future.
Houses, stamp collections, and interest-bearing bank accounts all serve as stores of value. Since money pays no interest and its real purchasing power is eroded by inflation, there are almost certainly better ways to store value.
Finally, money serves as a standard of deferred payment or a unit of account over time. When you borrow, the amount to be repaid next year is measured in money value.
Different Kinds of Money
Golden coins are the examples of commodity money, because their gold content is a commodity.
A token money is a means of payment whose value or purchasing power as money greatly exceeds its cost of production or value in uses other than as money.
A $10 note is worth far more as money than as a 3x6 inch piece of high-quality paper. Similarly, the monetary value of most coins exceeds the amount you would get by melting them down and selling off the metals they contain. By collectively agreeing to use token money, society economizes on the scarce resources required to produce money as a medium of exchange. Since the manufacturing costs are tiny, why doesn’t everyone make $10 notes?The essential condition for the survival of token money is the restriction of the right to supply it. Private production is illegal.
Society enforces the use of token money by making it legal tender. The law says it must be accepted as a means of payment. In modem economies, token money is supplemented by IOU money.
An IOU money is a medium of exchange based on the debt of a private firm or individual.
A bank deposit is IOU money because it is a debt of the bank. When you have a bank deposit the bank owes you money. You can write a cheque to yourself or a third party and the bank is obliged to pay whenever the cheque is presented. Bank deposits are a medium of exchange because they are generally accepted as payment.

12 ноября 23:447 Комментировать Следить
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